Member country since: 2002
Remembrance Days: 27 January (International Holocaust Remembrance Day)
María Fabiana Loguzzo (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) – Head of Delegation
Cecilia Meirovich (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) – Deputy Head of Delegation
Beatriz Dragovetsky de Nemirovsky (Jewish Community in Argentina) – Education Working Group
Héctor Shalom (Anne Frank House) – Museums and Memorials Working Group
Andrea Gualde (Auschwitz Institute for the Prevention of Genocide and Mass Atrocities) – Academic Working Group
Paula Vainer (BAMA Foundation) – Museums and Memorials Working Group
Ana Diamant (ICUF) – Academic Working Group
Ariel Gelblung (Simon Wiesenthal Centre for Latin America) – Academic Working Group
Cristina Gómez Giusto (Ministry of Education) – Education Working Group
Emmanuel Kahan (National Council for Scientific and Technological Research) – Academic Working Group
Jonathan Karszenbaum (The Buenos Aires Holocaust Museum) – Museums and Memorials Working Group
Jorge Knoblovits (Delegation of Argentinian Jewish Organizations) – Education Working Group
Laura Mariela Bari (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) –
Andrea Copani (Human Rights Secretariat) – Museums and Memorials Working Group
Argentina is committed to the promotion and protection of human rights as a guiding principle and state policy. We believe that the participation of our country in the IHRA, as the only Latin American member, is key not only for maintaining remembrance of the Shoah, but also for preventing genocides and facing present challenges in upholding truth and justice. It is essential to work along side civil society organizations, and other key actors to strengthen these policies.
Download the 2021 Argentina country report (the content of the report is the responsibility of the reporting country).
Key facts about Holocaust education, remembrance, and research in Argentina
All IHRA Member Countries are asked to complete a basic questionnaire with key facts about the state of Holocaust education, remembrance, and research in their country. The answers to the questionnaire are provided by the national delegations, who are also responsible for keeping the information up to date.
1. What are the most important policy statements on the Holocaust, the genocide of the Roma, and genocide made by your government over the last seven years? Please include the name of the statement, the body who issued the statement, the date the statement was made, and a link.
• Only a month after swearing into office, in January 2020 President Alberto Fernández decided to reaffirm at the highest political level Argentina’s commitment to the Holocaust –its memory, it’s teaching- by making his first official international trip to Israel, to attend the "International Holocaust Forum 2020" held in Jerusalem, in commemoration of the 75th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz. This confirmed at the highest level Argentina's unwavering support for the Stockholm Declaration and its strong commitment to promote education, remembrance and research of the Shoah.
We believe that the President choosing to attend the "International Holocaust Forum 2020" as his first foreign trip is, in itself, a policy statement:
• In 2020, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Worship adopted, through Resolution 114/2020, IHRA's working and legally non-binding definition of anti-Semitism. This is perhaps the most relevant action, in both practical and symbolic terms taken during the period covered by this report. By means of this resolution, not only was the definition adopted, but all other public and private institutions were urged to adopt it as well. Since then, after almost two years of its official adoption, almost 50 public and private institutions and organizations have adopted it, including the National Congress, eight provincial governments, provincial legislatures, local governments, federal and high courts, national universities, trade unions and even the Argentine Football Association (AFA).
Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina, june 2020: https://www.boletinoficial.gob.ar/detalleAviso/primera/230279/20200608
• On January 27 2021, President Alberto Fernandez personally addressed the country to mark the International Holocaust Remembrance Day: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=59fogMaAkU8
• On 27 January 2022, Argentina’s Foreign Minister, Santiago Cafiero, attended the commemoration of the International Holocaust Remembrance Day organized jointly by the MFA and the Holocaust Museum of Buenos Aires:
2. Please list, with links, a short description (200 words) of any action plans, statistics, etc. related to countering Holocaust denial and distortion, antisemitism, and antigypsyism/anti-Roma discrimination.
The official efforts to combat antisemitism continue to be a state policy in Argentina, with the unequivocal support of both the national and provincial governments. At the national level, the fight against this scourge is one of the priorities of the new "National Plan to Combat Discrimination" currently being prepared by INADI, the national anti-discrimination authority. At the international level, Argentina continues to support various initiatives against antisemitism in the main multilateral fora, especially at the United Nations, both in Geneva, at the Human Rights Council –where we always co-sponsor the Resolution on “Genocide Prevention” and in New York at the UN General Assembly, where recently, in January 2022, we co-sponsored Resolution on Holocaust Denial.
In the field of education, since 2015 the national Ministry of Education has been teaching every year the virtual course "Holocaust and Genocides of the 20th Century", in the framework of which teaching about the Shoah occupies a prominent place (with 1000 places each edition).
In 2017, the Ministry of Education published "Murals for Memory", an art exhibition catalog with short texts to accompany the teaching of the Holocaust and other historical events and organized the International Seminar "Significant Experiences in the Challenge of Teaching Holocaust and Genocides in the 21st Century".
More recently, from our Ministry of Education:
And from our Human Rights Secretariat:
Furthermore, Argentina has put great emphasis on the translation into Spanish of the IHRA's materials and guidelines. We have worked closely with the Spanish delegation reviewing their translation of the “Recommendations for the Teaching and Learning about the Holocaust” and we translated ourselves, with their revision, the “Recommendations for Countering Holocaust Distortion”, submitted to the IHRA in September/October 2021.
From the civil society Argentina’s Ann Frank Center won a grant from the IHRA to carry out its project “Distortion, denial and trivialization of the Holocaust, and recent memory; its use in hate speeches: Recommendations and strategies to counter them”:
3. How numerous and widespread are annual Holocaust remembrance events and remembrance events dedicated to the genocide of the Roma?
Holocaust commemoration events in Argentina are numerous and take place both in the public and private spheres, as well as among civil society organizations.
At the State / public level, the Federal Government carries out an official commemoration every January 27; however, on the same date, numerous events of the same type take place simultaneously in different provinces and cities.
At the civil society level, several organizations that are part of IHRA’s Local Chapter hold their own commemorations, such as DAIA, AMIA, the Holocaust Museum, the Anne Frank Center Argentina, among others.
Other important dates have been identified in the national educational calendar as being relevant for education and remembrance of the Holocaust and other genocides. These include: April 19, "Day of Coexistence in Cultural Diversity", in memory of the Warsaw ghetto uprising; June 12, "Day of adolescents and young people for social inclusion and coexistence against all forms of violence and discrimination", in commemoration of the birth of Anne Frank; April 24, "Day of action for tolerance and respect among peoples, in commemoration of the genocide of which the Armenian people were victims".
4. Are there any specific academic programs or permanent professorships dedicated to the Holocaust and the genocide of the Roma? Y/N If yes, please provide details.
Regarding the genocide of the Roma, in Argentina there is the “Gypsy Observatory” (Observatorio Gitano), a civil association dedicated to working for the education, rights and equality of the Roma/Gypsy People in Argentina. The organization was recently founded (2019) and in 2020 and 2021 they held virtual conferences with educational experiences on "Education, Rights and Equality for the Roma People".
The sessions can be seen on the Gypsy Observatory Youtube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCRJ5z7CFScI6Dy-7wifKtjA
Concerning the Holocaust, the National Ministry of Education develops through the National Institute for Teacher Training (INFoD), a virtual training course for the teaching of the Holocaust and genocides of the 20th century, with an average of 1500 to 2000 vacancies per year.
During 2016, the International Seminar: "Significant experiences in the challenge of teaching Holocaust and Genocides in the 21st century" was held. This activity was jointly organized by the National Ministry of Education, the Latin American Network for the teaching of the Holocaust and Genocides (UNESCO), the IHRA (International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance) and the Anne Frank Center Argentina. The meeting was attended by 150 people, including educational leaders of ministries of education from all over the country, members of civil society organizations of the IHRA´s Local Chapter, and, educational leaders of Sites of Memory and/or Human Rights Secretariats from various parts of the country.
On September 13, the meeting of the Latin American Network of UNESCO Focal Points for Holocaust and genocide education was held in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires,. Thirteen representatives from member countries (Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Paraguay and Uruguay) participated in this meeting, together with invited observers from Colombia.
Likewise, during the period under review, teacher training activities were carried out in different jurisdictions of the country, in coordination with the Federal Network of Education and Memory.
In addition to the training proposal made by the national State and its jurisdictional peers, there are other actions carried out by civil society organizations that participate in the local chapter of the IHRA, such as the Holocaust Museum of Buenos Aires, the DAIA, the Anne Frank Center, the Auschwitz Institute for the Prevention of Genocide and Mass Atrocities, Memoria Abierta, among others.
During 2020, when the Covid pandemic broke out on a global scale, the National Ministry of Education and Canal Encuentro (educational TV channel) arranged for the production of educational initiatives with the aim of accompanying and guaranteeing the education continuity of the students. Among the projects developed were those aimed at addressing the genocides, the Holocaust and the military dictatorships that took place in Latin America during the second half of the 20th century, mainly but not exclusively within the area of Ethics and Citizenship Education.
In the field of universities and academic research there are some programs or research centers that approach the Holocaust and the genocides of the 20th century in different ways and from different perspectives. In the first place, the Center for Genocide Studies of the Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero develops research as well as its own academic journal dedicated to the study of the Holocaust and various experiences of mass violence that took place in the 20th century.
The Nucleus of Jewish Studies, based at the Institute for Economic and Social Development, brings together researchers dedicated to investigating the experience of Jewish life in the country. Among the most outstanding lines of research are those related to the response of the Jewish community during the years in which the Holocaust took place as well as the different strategies and meanings of remembrance afterwards. The National University of Cordoba, for its part, holds an undergraduate seminar dedicated to the teaching of the Holocaust and the genocides that took place in the 20th century, which also has the support of the DAIA-Cordoba Branch and the South American Armenian Council. A similar space is available at the University of Buenos Aires, in the Faculty of Legal Sciences, with the Free Chair on "Holocaust, Genocide and Fight against Discrimination". In 2020 the Faculty of Legal and Social Sciences (FCJS) of the National University of Litoral (UNL) inaugurated the "Open Chair of historical, political, legal and social studies on Holocaust, Genocide, Xenophobia, Racism and Hate Speech. Also in 2020, a similar Chair on Holocaust and other Genocides was inaugurated in Mar del Plata, Province of Buenos Aires.
A Network of Researchers in Genocide and Indigenous Politics was created a few years ago, which brings together men and women with insertion in various national universities and scientific research agencies. They are mainly dedicated to the analysis of the extermination and persecution of native populations in Argentina and Latin America. Their studies, however, take into account many of the concepts and lessons coming from the field of Holocaust and Genocide Studies.
There are also various postgraduate programs - University of Buenos Aires, National University of La Plata, National University of San Luis, among others - dedicated to training in Citizenship and Human Rights that incorporate in their curricula the teaching of the Holocaust, jurisprudence on international criminal law, the role of testimonies and transitional justice.
Additionally, the country has had for several years an active policy of training and accompaniment of teachers and researchers on these issues. Since 2005, the National Ministry of Education develops through the National Institute of Teacher Training (INFoD), a virtual training course for the teaching of the Holocaust and the genocides of the 20th century, with an average of 1500 to 2000 students per year.
The Ministry of Education has a permanent national educational policy since 2006 which encompasses the development of multiple actions for teachers training and the production of educational materials.
During the period covered by this report, the following actions were carried out:
2016: Virtual courses: Holocaust and genocides of the 20th century, 400 students.
2017. Publication: "Murals for Memory" in agreement with AMIA and in coordination with the art gallery area of the Ministry of Education. It is a catalog of the art show with short texts to accompany the teaching of the Holocaust and other historical events.
Virtual courses: Holocaust and genocides of the 20th century, 1000 students.
International seminar "Significant experiences in the challenge of teaching the Holocaust and Genocides in the XXI century".
An International Seminar was held on: “Significant experiences in the challenge of teaching the Holocaust and Genocides in the 21st century”. This activity was jointly organized by the National Ministry of Education, the Latin American Network for the Teaching of the Holocaust and Genocides (UNESCO), the IHRA (International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance) and the Ana Frank Center of Argentina. 150 persons attended the metting, including educational leaders from ministries of education of provinces , members of civil society organizations of the Local Chapter of the International Alliance for the Memory of the Holocaust (IHRA).
Regarding universities, there are 132 centers in Argentina with more than 2,000,000 students. More information: https://www.argentina.gob.ar/sites/default/files/sintesis_2018-2019_sistema_universitario_argentino_-_ver_final_1_0.pdf
Although there is no specific survey, it can be stated that in all degrees in History, Sociology, Anthropology, Law and other social sciences university careers (among others), different aspects of the Holocaust are addressed. It is planned to carry out a survey in the Working Plan of the Local Chapter.
5. Has any noteworthy research been published on the Holocaust and the genocide of the Roma in the last seven years? Y/N. If yes, please provide details.
Yes, during this period various works were published on the reception of the Holocaust in our country as well as the ways in which its memory was incorporated into the public debate.
Some of these works are books or articles in academic journals as well as filmography or second-generation non-fiction or testimonial literature.
● Brenan, Darío y Efrón, Gustavo, "Los medios gráficos argentinos durante el nazismo", Revista Question, Nº 1, Facultad de Periodismo y Comunicación Social, La Plata, 2006.
● Chinski, Malena, "La representación del <horror nazi> en la prensa argentina", Revista de Estudios Sociales, Nº 54, Universidad de Los Andes, Colombia, 2015.
● Chinski, Malena, “Memorias olvidadas: los judíos y la recordación de la Shoá en Buenos Aires”, Tesis Doctorado en Ciencias Sociales, UNGS-IDES, 2018.
● Chinski, Malena, “Un catálogo en memoria del judaísmo polaco: la colección Dos poylishe yidntum, Buenos Aires, 1946-1966” en Kahan, Emmanuel et al., Marginados y consagrados. Nuevos estudios sobre la vida judía en Argentina., Buenos Aires, Lumiere, 2011.
● Dujovne, Alejandro, Una historia del libro judío. Cultura judía argentina a través de sus libreros, traductores y editores., Buenos Aires, Siglo XXI, 2014.
● Dujovne, Alejandro, ”Un estudio comparativo de dos actos de conmemoración del Levantamiento del Gueto de Varsovia en Córdoba”, III Conferencia Internacional de Latin American Jewish Studies Association, Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, Estados Unidos, 2004.
● Emmanuel Kahan y Celeste Adamoli, 2017, “El abordaje del Holocausto desde la trama educativa”, Revista Aletheia, Nº 14, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación, Maestría en Historia y Memoria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
● Friedmann, Germán, Alemanes antinazis en Argentina., Buenos Aires, Siglo XXI, 2010.
● Goldstein, Yossi, “El discurso judío de la memoria. Pensamiento público y memoria de la Shoá en Argentina en la era de la globalización”, Judaica Latinoameriana, Vol VII, Jerusalem, Magnes, 2013.
● Kahan, Emmanuel y Lvovich, Daniel, “Los usos del Holocausto en Argentina. Apuntes sobre las apropiaciones y resignificaciones de la memoria del genocidio nazi” en Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, Vol 61, Nº 228, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, 2016.
● Kahan, Emmanuel y Schenquer, Laura, “The Use of the Past During the Last Military Dictatorship and Post-Dictatorship: The Holocaust as a Horizon of Identification, Alienation and Negotiation for the Jewish community” en Temas de Nuestra América, Vol 32, Nº 60, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, 2016.
● Lvovich, D., Bohoslavsky, E. y Rubinzal, M. “La réception de Primo Levi en Argentine ” en Primo Levi à l’œuvre. La réception de l’œuvre de Primo Levi dans le monde. París, Kimé, 2008.
● Simón, Paula. “La recepción de la obra de Primo Levi en Argentina. Lecturas de la Shoah en la narrativa testimonial argentina concentracionaria”, Boletín de Literatura Comparada, Nº 41, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 2016.
● Wechsler, Wanda, “¿Todo está guardado en la memoria? La memoria del Holocausto en Argentina a través de un museo (1993-2013), Tesis Maestría en Investigación Histórica, Universidad de San Andrés, Buenos Aires, 2016.
● Zaretsky, Natasha, Acts of repair., New Jersey, Rutgers University press, 2020.
As it can be seen, these works address the issue of the Holocaust. There are no records about the case of Roma and Sinti, except for the novel by Jorge Nadich, The Black Breath of the Roma, Buenos Aires, Voria Stefanovsky editores, 2018.
6. Have any surveys been conducted to assess the post-war public understanding of the Holocaust and the genocide of the Roma? Y/N. Please provide links.
There have been no developments in this regard in the period covered by this report. The last survey that investigated the impact of the teaching of the Holocaust at high school level of the national public system was carried out by the Ministry of Education of the Nation, in coordination with the Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires during 2015. Its results were informed at the time.
We share here again the main results: “Representations of young people about the recent past”: http://www.bnm.me.gov.ar/giga1/documentos/EL005582.pdf
7. What are the most used textbooks and teaching materials on the Holocaust and the genocide of the Roma, and when were they published and/or updated?
The Education and Memory Program produces educational materials (texts, lectures, videos, etc.) on Holocaust education every year. More information on these materials can be found in:
There have been no changes during this period regarding the curriculum and the production of educational materials.
8. Have any surveys or other educational research been conducted to assess the effectiveness of teaching and learning about the Holocaust and/or the genocide of the Roma? Y/N. If yes, please provide details.
Please see question 6.
9. What public or private museums, memorials, archives, and/or sites in your country are dedicated to the Holocaust and/or the genocide of the Roma? Please provide details, including the role of central, regional, or local public bodies. Are these institutions listed in the IHRA Overview of Holocaust-related Organizations, in the EHRI Portal, or other databases?
In Argentina, there are various museums, memorials and memorial sites in remembrance of the victims of the Holocaust. Among them, one could mention the Ana Frank Argentina Center (http://centroanafrank.com.ar) and the Buenos Aires Holocaust Museum (https://www.museodelholocausto.org.ar), which both have educational areas with proposals for training, dissemination, and exchange.
Likewise, one can identify the national monument to the memory of the victims of the Jewish Holocaust, located in the Plaza de la Shoá, between Avenida del Libertador, the embankment of the Mitre Railway, Freyre Street and the viaduct of the San Martín Railway, next to the Paseo de la Infanta in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA). Also located in CABA, on the corner of Austria Street and Figueroa Alcorta Avenue is the monument to Raoul Wallenberg.
In the province of Buenos Aires, in the town of Coronel Pringles, the monument to the Shoah is located in the square on Avenida Frondizi between Moreno and Garay.
In the province of San Juan, the monument that evokes the memory of the Holocaust, located on José Ignacio de la Roza Avenue, in front of the Civic Center of the city of San Juan.
These are just some of the existing monuments throughout the country.
10. What steps has your country taken towards implementing the International Memorial Museums Charter?
No information is available on concrete steps taken in this regard.
11. If an overview exists, how many and which organizations that work in the field of Holocaust and genocide of the Roma education, remembrance, and research receive public funding?
No such overview exists. We can, however, confirm that the two main institutions in the city of Buenos Aires, the Holocaust Museum of Buenos Aires and the Ann Frank Center have received public funding, as well as strong public support over the last years for different projects, both from the local level of the Government of the City of Buenos Aires and from the National Federal Government.
12. What are the most important policy statements on genocide or mass atrocity crimes over the last seven years? Please include the name of the statement, the body who issued the statement, the date the statement was made, and a link.
Argentina is a founding member of GAAMAC (Global Action against Mass Atrocity Crimes) – https://www.gaamac.org. GAAMAC is an inclusive network created in 2013 by States, civil society organizations and academic institutions with the support of the United Nations. It works collaboratively to provide a platform for the prevention of atrocities (genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing). GAAMAC assists interested States in operationalizing the prevention of atrocities at the national level through information-sharing, enhancing links among and between States, civil society and academia, and peer-to-peer support.
Argentina is, also, an active member of the “Latin American Network for the Prevention of Genocide”, informal state network in the region that counts with the support and Technical Secretariat role of the Auschwitz Institute for the Prevention of Genocide and Mass Atrocities: